Varicocele, dilatation of the scrotal veins, detected by physical exam and confirmed by ultrasound, is associated with diminished sperm production (low count) and low motility (slow movement). Surgery used to be recommended routinely for men diagnosed with varicocele. Additional prolonged medication protocols usually followed.
Today recommendations are made based on women’s age and both partners diagnosis to benefit infertile couple. For tubal factor (blocked fallopian tubes), IVF became primary infertility treatment regardless of sperm quality.
Male factor is diagnosis by abnormal semen analysis. Inseminations, medications and varicocele surgery are effectively used to improve sperm quality and capability to fertilize egg. Sperm production (count) and sperm motility (swimming) respond better to treatments then sperm defective morphology (abnormal shape), cause of long-standing male infertility.